DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters (AgN-DNAs) are known to have one or two DNA oligomer ligands per nanocluster. Here, we present the first evidence that AgN-DNA species can possess additional chloride ligands that lead to increased stability in biologically relevant concentrations of chloride. Mass spectrometry of five chromatographically isolated near infrared (NIR) emissive AgN-DNA species with previously reported X-ray crystal structures determines their molecular formulas to be (DNA)2[Ag16Cl2]8+. Chloride ligands can be exchanged for bromides, which redshifts the optical spectra of these emitters. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the 6-electron nanocluster show that the two newly identified chloride ligands were previously assigned as low-occupancy silvers by X-ray crystallography. DFT also confirms the stability of chloride in the crystallographic structure, yields qualitative agreement between computed and measured UV-vis absorption spectra, and provides interpretation of the 35Cl-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the (DNA)2[Ag16Cl2]8+. A reanalysis of the X-ray crystal structure confirms that the two previously assigned low-occupancy silvers are, in fact, chlorides, yielding (DNA)2[Ag16Cl2]8+. Using the unusual stability of (DNA)2[Ag16Cl2]8+ in biologically relevant saline solutions as a possible indicator of other chloride-containing AgN-DNAs, we identified an additional AgN-DNA with chloride ligands by high-throughput screening. Inclusion of chlorides on AgN-DNAs presents a promising new route to expand the diversity of AgN-DNA structure-property relationships and to imbue these emitters with favorable stability for biophotonics applications.
Supporting Information: Chloride ligands on DNA-stabilized silver nanoclusters
Supporting Information: Materials and experimental methods, computational methods, HPLC chromatograms, optical spectra of purified AgN-DNAs, mass spectra and calculated mass distributions, DFT calculations for interpretations of 35Cl-NMR measurements, crystallographic reanalysis tables.