Model-Driven Design of Redox Mediators: Quantifying the Impact of Quinone Structure on Bioelectrocatalytic Activity with Glucose Oxidase

18 January 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Successful application of emerging bioelectrocatalysis technologies depends upon an efficient electrochemical interaction between redox enzymes as biocatalysts and conductive electrode surfaces. One approach to establishing such enzyme-electrode interfaces utilizes small redox-active molecules to act as electron mediators between an enzyme active site and electrode surface. While redox mediators have been successfully used in bioelectrocatalysis applications ranging from enzymatic electrosynthesis to enzymatic biofuel cells, they are often selected using a guess-and-check approach. Herein, we identify structure-function relationships in redox mediators that describe the bimolecular rate constant for its reaction with a model enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx). Based on a library of quinone-based redox mediators, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is developed to describe the importance of mediator redox potential and projected molecular area as two key parameters for predicting the activity of quinone/GOx-based electroenzymatic systems. Additionally, rapid scan stopped-flow spectrophotometry was used to provide fundamental insights into the kinetics and the stoichiometry of reactions between different quinones and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD+/FADH2) cofactor of GOx. This work provides a critical foundation for both designing new enzyme-electrode interfaces and understanding the role that quinone structure plays in altering electron flux in electroenzymatic reactions.


mediated electron transfer
structure-activity relationships

Supplementary materials

Model-Driven Design of Redox Mediators: Quantifying the Impact of Quinone Structure on Bioelectrocatalytic Activity with Glucose Oxidase - Supporting Information
Electrochemical procedures, experimental conditions, modeling parameters, derivation of reaction kinetics, DFT computed ground state structures, and voltammetry data for all quinones.


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