Chemoselective, oxidation-induced macrocyclization of tyrosine-containing peptides


Inspired by Nature’s wide range of oxidation-induced modifications to install cross-links and cycles at tyrosine (Tyr) and other phenol-containing residue side chains, we report a Tyr-selective strategy for the preparation of Tyr-linked cyclic peptides. This approach leverages N4-substituted 1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-diones (TADs) as azo electrophiles that react chemoselectively with the phenolic side chain of Tyr residues to form stable C–N1-linked cyclic peptides. In the developed method, a precursor 1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione moiety, also known as a urazole, is readily constructed at any free amine revealed on a solid-supported peptide. Once prepared, the N4-substituted urazole peptide is selectively oxidized using mild, peptide-compatible conditions to generate an electrophilic N4-substituted TAD peptide intermediate that reacts selectively under aqueous conditions with internal and terminal Tyr residues to furnish Tyr-linked cyclic peptides. The approach demonstrates good tolerance of native residue side chains and enables access to cyclic peptides ranging from 3- to 11-residues in size (16- to 38-atom-containing cycles). The identity of the installed Tyr-linkage, a stable covalent C–N1 bond, was characterized using NMR spectroscopy. Finally, we applied the developed method to prepare biologically active Tyr-linked cyclic pep-tides bearing the integrin-binding RGDf epitope.


Supplementary material

Supporting Information: Chemoselective, oxidation-induced macrocyclization of tyrosine-containing peptides
The supporting information contains experimental protocols and characterization data for the compounds presented in the manuscript.