The growing usage of plastics in their various forms and applications has resulted in an exponential increase and spread of microplastics throughout the environment. We present a review based on a comprehensive analysis of the CAS content collection on the awareness of the underlying detrimental effects of several types of microplastics. The sources of this microplastic pollution are derived from its direct production or the degradation of macroplastics and include items such as personal care products, synthetic textile fibers, and rubber tires. The most frequent polymers observed in microplastic pollution are polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyvinyl chloride. These plastics are frequently mixed or combined with chemical additives such as phthalate and polybrominated biphenyls and are prevalent throughout the atmosphere, water, and in food. When these plastic pollutants are ingested or inhaled, adverse health effects are likely to result. This review reports the current scientific literature on microplastics and aims to analyze the current knowledge regarding their toxicology and potential solutions for the management and remediation of this type of plastic pollution.