This paper reviews graph theory-based methods that were recently developed in our group for post-processing molecular dynamics trajectories. We show that the use of algorithmic graph theory not only provides a direct and fast methodology to identify conformers sampled over time but also allows to follow the interconversions between the conformers through graphs of transitions in time. Examples of gas phase molecules and inhomogeneous aqueous solid interfaces are presented to demonstrate the power of topological 2D graphs and their versatility for post-processing molecular dynamics trajectories. An even more complex challenge is to predict 3D structures from topological 2D graphs. Our first attempts to tackle such a challenge are presented with the development of game theory and reinforcement learning methods for predicting the 3D structure of a gas-phase peptide.