X- and Q-band EPR with cryogenic amplifiers independent of sample temperature

27 October 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Inspired by the success of NMR cryoprobes, we recently reported a leap in X-band EPR sensitivity by equipping an ordinary EPR probehead with a cryogenic low-noise microwave amplifier placed closed to the sample in the same cryostat [Šimėnas et al. J. Magn. Reson. 322, 106876 (2021)]. Here, we explore, theoretically and experimentally, a more general approach, where the amplifier temperature is independent of the sample temperature. This approach brings a number of important advantages, enabling sensitivity improvement irrespective of sample temperature, as well as making it more practical to combine with ENDOR and Q-band resonators, where space in the sample cryostat is often limited. Our experimental realisation places the cryogenic preamplifier within an external closed-cycle cryostat, and we show CW and pulsed EPR and ENDOR sensitivity improvements at both X- and Q-bands with negligible dependence on sample temperature. The cryoprobe delivers signal-to-noise ratio enhancements that reduce the equivalent measurement time by 16x at X-band and close to 5x at Q-band. Using the theoretical framework we discuss further improvements of this approach which could be used to achieve even greater sensitivity.




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