Explicit learning of derivatives with the KREG and pKREG models on the example of accurate representation of molecular potential energy surfaces

20 October 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The KREG and pKREG models were proven to enable accurate learning of multidimensional single-molecule surfaces of quantum chemical properties such as ground-state potential energies, excitation energies, and oscillator strengths. These models are based on kernel ridge regression (KRR) with the Gaussian kernel function and employ relative-to-equilibrium (RE) global molecular descriptor, while pKREG is designed to enforce invariance under atom permutations with a permutationally invariant kernel. Here we extend these two models to also explicitly include the derivative information from the training data into the model which greatly improves their accuracy. We demonstrate on the example of learning potential energies and energy gradients that KREG and pKREG models are better or on par with state-of-the-art machine learning models. We also found that in challenging cases both energy and energy gradient labels should be learned to properly model potential energy surfaces and learning only energies or gradients is insufficient. The models’ open-source implementation is freely available in the MLatom package for general-purpose atomistic machine learning simulations which can be also performed on the MLatom@XACS cloud computing service.


kernel methods
kernel ridge regression

Supplementary weblinks


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