Inducing long lasting B cell and T cell immunity against multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2 through mutant bacteriophage Qβ – receptor binding domain conjugate

18 October 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


More than two years into the global pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 remains a significant threat to public health. Immunities acquired from infection or current vaccines fail to provide long term protection against subsequent infections, mainly due to their fast-waning nature and the emergence of variants of concerns (VOCs) such as Omicron. To overcome these limitations, SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD)-based epitopes were investigated as conjugates with a powerful carrier, the mutant bacteriophage Qβ (mQβ). The epitope design was critical to eliciting potent antibody responses with the full length RBD being superior to peptide and glycopeptide antigens. The full length RBD with orientation-controlled conjugation with mQβ activated both humoral and cellular immune systems in vivo, inducing broad spectrum, persistent and comprehensive immune responses effective against multiple VOCs including Delta and Omicron variants, rendering it a promising vaccine candidate.


mutant Qbeta
Virus like particle

Supplementary materials

Supporting information
Supporting figures, table and scheme, and experimental methods


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.