Exploring Deep Learning for Metalloporphyrins: Databases, Molecular Representations, and Model Architectures

11 October 2022, Version 2
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Metalloporphyrins have been studied as biomimetic catalysts for more than 120 years and have accumulated a large amount of data, which provides a solid foundation for deep learning to discover chemical trends and structure-function relationships. In this study, key components of deep learning of metalloporphyrins, including databases, molecular representations, and model architectures, were systematically investigated. A protocol to construct canonical SMILES for metalloporphyrins was proposed, which was then used to represent the two-dimensional structures of over 10,000 metalloporphyrins in an existing computational database. Subsequently, several state-of-the-art chemical deep learning models, including graph neural network-based models and natural language processing-based models, were employed to predict the energy gaps of metalloporphyrins. Two models showed satisfactory predictive performance (R2>0.94) with canonical SMILES as the only source of structural information. In addition, an unsupervised visualization algorithm was used to interpret the molecular features learned by the deep learning models.


Molecular representation
Deep learning
Property prediction

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information
Supplementary figures, tables, and discussions.


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