Despite their inherent instability, 4n pi-systems have recently received significant attention due to their unique optical and electronic properties. In dibenzopentalene, benzanellation stabilizes the highly antiaromatic pentalene core, without compromising its amphoteric redox behavior or small HOMO–LUMO energy gap. However, incorporating such molecules in organic devices as discrete small molecules or ill-defined amorphous polymers can limit the performance (e.g. due to solubility in the electrolyte solution or low internal surface area). Covalent organic frameworks, on the contrary, are highly ordered, porous, and crystalline materials that can provide a platform to align molecules with specific properties in a well-defined, ordered environment. We synthesized the first antiaromatic framework materials and obtained a series of three highly crystalline and porous covalent organic frameworks based on dibenzopentalene. Potential applications of such antiaromatic bulk materials were explored: COF films show a conductivity of 4 × 10^(−8) S cm^(−1) upon doping and exhibit photoconductivity upon irradiation with visible light. Investigations as battery electrode materials demonstrate their ambipolar nature and the ability to store both anions and Li ions with enhanced charge storage capabilities compared to an aromatic COF or the conductive carbon material. This work showcases antiaromaticity as a new design principle for functional framework materials.
Supporting Information for Antiaromatic Covalent Organic Frameworks Based on Dibenzopentalenes
Methods, Procedures, Data, Additional Results