Conjugation-Modulated Excitonic Coupling Brightens Multiple Triplet Excited States

02 September 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The design and regulation of multiple room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) processes are formidably challenging due to the restrictions imposed by Kasha’s rule. Here we report a general design principle for materials that show multiple RTP processes, which is informed by our study of four compounds where there is modulation of the linker hybridization between donor (D) and acceptor (A) groups. Theoretical modeling and photophysical experiments demonstrate that multiple RTP processes can be achieved in sp3 C-linked D-A compounds due to the arrest of intramolecular electronic communication between the T2 and T1 states. However, for the sp2 C-linked D-A counterparts, only RTP from T1 is observed because of enhanced excitonic coupling between the T2 and T1 states. Single-crystal and reduced density gradient analyses reveal the influence of molecular packing on the coincident phosphorescence processes and the origin of the observed aggregate phosphorescence. These findings provide insight into high-lying triplet excited state dynamics and into a fundamental design principle for designing compounds that show multiple RTP.


room-temperature phosphorescence
multiple phosphorescence
conjugation modulation
excitonic coupling
higher-lying triplet excitons

Supplementary materials

Electronic Supporting Information


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