Recently, various metabolites derived from host microbes have been reported to modulate the immune system, with potential involvement in health or diseases. Archaea, prokaryotic organisms, are present in the human body, but their connection with the host is largely unknown when compared with other microorganisms such as bacteria. This study focused on unique glycerolipids from symbiotic methanogenic archaea and evaluated their activities toward an innate immune receptor. The results revealed that archaeal lipids were recognized by the C-type lectin receptor Mincle and induced immune responses. A concurrent structure-activity relationship study identified key structural features of archaeal lipids required for recognition by Mincle. Subsequent gene expression profiling suggested qualitative differences between the symbiotic archaeal lipid and the pathogenic bacteria-derived lipid. These findings have broad implications for understanding the function and pathogenicity of symbiotic archaea to host health and diseases.