A Brief History of and Insight in the Choice of Sensitizers/Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells



In this review, a discussion on renewable sources of energy with clear focus on solar cell applications is presented. Especially, possible future directions for development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are discussed. Dye-sensitized solar cells have become an important topic of research due to its high importance in energy conversion. Current DSSCs are based on either metal dye sensitizers, metal-free organic dyes or natural dyes. They have been extensively studied due to their low cost, simple preparation methodology, low toxicity, and ease of production. Still there is a need to find more abundant DSSC materials that at same time exhibit long-term stability. Computational studies have been an important ally for developing/designing new dye sensitizers. They are reviewed here with a special emphasis on the benefit of such studies. The conceptual understanding of development and working principle of photoactive DSSC materials are the primary feature of the review followed by examples of studies on different dye sensitizers using scarce to abundant metal based dyes and metal free organic dyes with donor-π-acceptor geometries for both n- and p-type DSSCs. The proper choice of organic dyes including donor, spacer, or acceptor is discussed and a prospective on dual donor based dyes is presented.


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