Electrochemical and Degradation Studies on One-Dimensional Tunneled Sodium Zirconogallate + Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Composite, Mixed Sodium and Oxygen Ion Conductor

09 June 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


In recent years, multi-phase materials capable of multi-ion transport have emerged as attractive candidates for a variety of electrochemical devices. Here, we provide experimental results for fabricating a composite electrolyte made up of a one-dimensional fast sodium-ion conductor, sodium zirconogallate, and an oxygen-ion conductor, yttria-stabilized zirconia. The composite is synthesized through a vapor phase conversion mechanism, and the kinetics of this process are discussed in detail. The samples are characterized using diffraction, electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Samples with a finer grain structure exhibit higher kinetic rates due to larger three-phase boundaries (TPBs) per unit area. The total conductivity is fitted to an Arrhenius type equation with activation energies ranging from 0.23 eV at temperatures below 550 °C to 1.07 eV above 550 °C. The electrochemical performance of multi-phase multi-species, mixed sodium- and oxygen-ion conductors, is tested under both oxygen chemical potential gradient as well as sodium chemical potential gradient, before and after reaching equilibrium, are discussed using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Kats (GHK) and the Nernst equation. The total conductivity of the degraded cathode and anode terminals is investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The degradation investigation of samples indicates a decrease in conductivity adjacent to the anode terminal, the loss of sodium content, and the formation of β-gallia adjacent to the fuel electrode after ~396h at 1463 K.


solid electrolyte
multi-species conductors
composite electrolyte
sodium ion conductor
oxygen ion conductor
sodium zirconogallate
beta rutile gallate
vapor phase
fuel cells


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