Energy

Simultaneous neutron and X-ray tomography for ex-situ 3D visualization of graphite anode degradation in extremely fast-charged lithium-ion batteries.

Authors

  • Maha Yusuf Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA. ,
  • Jacob M. LaManna National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA. ,
  • Partha P. Paul Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. & ESRF – The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Av. des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble, France. & Henry Royce Institute, Department of Materials, University of Manchester, M1 3BB Manchester, United Kingdom. ,
  • David N. Agyeman-Budu Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. ,
  • Chuntian Cao Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. & Computational Science Initiative, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA. ,
  • Alison R. Dunlop Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA. ,
  • Andrew N. Jansen Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA. ,
  • Bryant J. Polzin Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA. ,
  • Stephen E. Trask Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA. ,
  • Tanvir R. Tanim Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA. ,
  • Eric J. Dufek Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA. ,
  • Vivek Thampy Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. ,
  • Hans-Georg Steinrück Department Chemie, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany. ,
  • Michael F. Toney Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309, USA. ,
  • Johanna Nelson Weker Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.

Abstract

Extreme fast charging (XFC) of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in ≤10-15 minutes will significantly advance the deployment of electric vehicles globally. However, XFC leads to considerable capacity fade, mainly due to graphite anode degradation. Non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) investigation of XFC-cycled anodes is crucial to connect degradation with capacity loss. Here, we demonstrate the viability of simultaneous neutron and X-ray tomography (NeXT) for ex-situ 3D visualization of graphite anode degradation. NeXT is advantageous because of the sensitivity of neutrons to Li and H and X-rays to Cu. We combine the neutron and X-ray tomography with micron resolution for material identification and segmentation on one pristine and one XFC-cycled graphite anode, thereby underscoring the benefits of the simultaneous nature of NeXT. Our ex-situ results pave the way for the design of NeXT-friendly LIB geometries that will allow operando and/or in-situ 3D visualization of graphite anode degradation during XFC.

Content

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