Incorporating Lindblad Decay Dynamics into Mixed Quantum-Classical Simulations



We derive the L-MFE method to incorporate Lindblad jump operator dynamics into the mean-field Ehrenfest (MFE) approach. We map the density matrix evolution of Lindblad dynamics onto pure state coefficients using trajectory averages. We use simple assumptions to construct the L-MFE method that satisfies this exact mapping. This establishes a method that exactly reproduces Lindblad decay dynamics using a wavefunction description, with deterministic changes of the magnitudes of the quantum expansion coefficients, while only adding on a stochastic phase. We further demonstrate that when including nuclei in the Ehrenfest dynamics, the L-MFE method gives semi-quantitatively accurate results, with the accuracy limited by the accuracy of the approximations present in the semiclassical MFE approach. This work provides a general framework to incorporate Lindblad dynamics into semiclassical or mixed quantum-classical simulations.