- Adam Barnett University of Utah ,
- John Karnes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - United States ,
- Jibao Lu University of Utah ,
- Dale Major Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ,
- James Oakdale Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ,
- Kyle Grew DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory ,
- Joshua McClure DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory ,
- Valeria Molinero University of Utah
Water content is the most influential factor in the performance of ion exchange membranes (IEM), controlling their mechanical rigidity, ionic conductivity, and degradation rates. Membranes absorb water exponentially at high water activity (aw), making that region of the sorption isotherm the most influential on membrane properties. Plasticization of the polymer by water has been proposed to cause this exponential uptake at high aw. However, an integrated microscopic picture of the structure, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of IEM as a function of aw has remained elusive. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations validated with experimental measurements to compute the sorption isotherms, Young’s modulus, polymer dynamics and structure of IEM. The simulations unveil that the exponential increase in water uptake coincides in all cases with the glass to rubber transition of the membrane, as measured through its Young’s modulus and segmental polymer dynamics. Functionalization of the polymer with alkyl groups further contributes to the plasticization of the polymer, increasing the water uptake at a given ion exchange capacity (IEC) and aw. We conclude that the alkyl chains act synergistically with water to plasti-cize the polymer matrix and allow water penetration in the membrane. The simulations reveal that the width of the water chan-nels depends on the ratio λ of water to ions in the membrane but is independent of its IEC. We conclude that differences in the polymer matrix –not the water channels- are responsible for the distinct uptake response of ion exchange membranes to the thermodynamic driving force of water activity.
Supporting Information for "Exponential Water Uptake in Ionomer Membranes Results from Polymer Plasticization"