The optimization of compounds with multiple targets is a difficult multidimensional problem in the drug discovery cycle. Here, we present a systematic, multidisciplinary approach to the development of selective anti-parasitic compounds. Computational fragment-based design of novel pteridine derivatives along with iterations of crystallographic structure determination allowed for the derivation of a structure-activity relationship for multitarget inhibition. The approach yielded compounds showing apparent picomolar inhibition of T. brucei pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1), nanomolar inhibition of L. major PTR1, and selective submicromolar inhibition of parasite dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) versus human DHFR. Moreover, by combining design for polypharmacology with a property-based on-parasite optimization, we found three compounds that exhibited micromolar EC50 values against T. brucei brucei, whilst retaining their target inhibition. Our results provide a basis for the further development of pteridine-based compounds, and we expect our multitarget approach to be generally applicable to the design and optimization of anti-infective agents.
pteridine-manuscript Supporting Information
Supplemental Figures S1-9, Supplemental Tables S1-12, Supplemental experimental procedures and compound characterization, NMR spectra of compounds