Analytical Chemistry

A Versatile DIY Route for Incorporation of a Wide Range of Electrode Materials into Rotating Ring Disk Electrodes

Authors

Abstract

Rotating ring disk electrodes (RRDEs) are a powerful and versatile tool for mechanistically investigating electrochemical reactions at electrode surfaces, particularly in the area of electroanalysis and catalysis. Despite their importance only limited electrode materials (typically glassy carbon, platinum and gold) and combinations thereof are available commercially. In this work we present a method employing 3D printing in conjunction with machined brass components to produce housing which can accommodate any electrode material in e.g. pressed powdered pellet, wafer, rod, foil or vapor deposited onto a conductive substrate, form. In this way the range and usability of RRDEs is extended. This custom DIY approach to producing RRDEs, also enables RRDEs to be produced at a significant fraction of the cost of commercial RRDEs. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, co-planar boron doped diamond (BDD) RRDEs are fabricated for the first time, using the approach described. Experimental collection efficiencies for the redox couple FcTMA+/FcTMA2+ are found to be very close to those predicted theoretically. BDD electrodes serve as an ideal electrocatalyst support due to their low background currents, wide solvent window in aqueous solution and chemical and electrochemical stability in acid and alkali solutions. The BDD RRDE configuration is employed to investigate the importance of surface incorporated non-diamond carbon in BDD on hydrogen peroxide generation via the oxygen reduction reaction in acid solutions.

Content

Thumbnail image of 2. Low Cost DIY RRDEs - Paper_v15.pdf

Supplementary material

Thumbnail image of 3. Low Cost DIY RRDEs - ESI_v12.pdf
Supporting Information
ESI.1: Design and Step-By-Step Assembly Instructions for RRDE Electrodes ESI.2: Bill of Materials ESI.3: CVs of RRDE Electrodes in 1 mM FcTMA+ and 0.1 M KNO3 ESI.4: Uncompensated Resistance Measurements ESI.5: White Light Interferometry (WLI) of Disk Electrode Surfaces ESI.6: Quinone Surface Coverage (QSC) Measurements ESI.7: Generation Collection Response of the NDC-BDD disk and BDD ring electrode (RRDE) ESI.8: Ring and Disk Currents at 0.60 V vs SCE ESI.9: Levich Analysis ESI.10: SEM of Pt-NP Modified Ring Electrode ESI.11: BDD Electrode Ring Calibrations for H2O2 ESI.12: NDC BDD Electrode Ring Calibrations for H2O2 ESI.13: Faradic Efficiency