Modification of the Basic Dilution Equation for the Programming of Serial Dilutions

25 April 2022, Version 2
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Stock solutions made with accurately weighable quantities of biologically active compounds often do not result in physically measurable delivery volumes, delivered to cell cultures, assay buffers etc., consequently requiring delineation of the serial dilution steps of the stock solution in a case by case manner. The basic dilution equation (C1V1 = C2V2) alone is not amenable for the programming and computerization of the serial dilutions. The best solution to this dilemma is to develop an equation with the delivery volume as one of the variables. We present here a modified dilution equation (MDE) that has the delivered volume as one of the variables. We demonstrate with examples how the equation can be used in delineating serial dilution steps either manually or through programming. The equation is D = C1p/C2V2, where D is the fold dilution required of a stock solution of C1 concentration which is diluted and delivered (pipetted) at a volume p to cell culture media, assay mixture etc., of volume (V2 – p), to achieve a final concentration of C2. The equation is useful when the volume of the stock solution made up to the final volume as calculated with basic dilution equation is not measurable physically. An Android application for the dilution/Serial dilution instructions, developed based on the MDE and named as “TheDilutionApp” is now available for free for a limited period at "". Downloading instructions are given under the “Results and Discussion” section of this preprint. A video demonstration of the downloading instructions and use of the Android application is available at A windows version of the same application is available as part of a larger program (8).


Serial dilution
Basic dilution equation

Supplementary weblinks


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.