Biological and Medicinal Chemistry

Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of Xylopia aethiopica stem bark extracts

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Abstract

The preliminary screening of phytochemical constituents of extracts of Xylopia aethiopica was evaluated. The n-hexane extract revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, and steroids, while the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, and phenolics was indicated in ethyl acetate extract, and the methanol extract contained tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids. The medicinal property of the extracts was investigated using in-vitro antimicrobial assays. The hexane extract indicates potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 100 mg/ml and ZI of 20 mm. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts had inhibitory activities against Candida albican with MIC of 100mg/ml while the standard antibiotics had no inhibitory activities against Candida albican, suggesting that these extracts contain certain phytochemical that are active against Candida albican. Saponins which are constituents of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the phytochemical screening, are known to be antifungal, especially against Candida albican. This suggests that the presence of saponins in both ethyl acetate and methanol extracts may be responsible for the inhibitory activities against Candida albican.

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