Fluorescent dyes such as rhodamines are widely used to assay the activity and image the location of otherwise invisible molecules. Si-rhodamines, in which the bridging oxygen of rhodamines is replaced with a dimethyl silyl group, are increasingly the dye scaffold of choice for biological applications, as fluorescence is shifted into the near-infrared while maintaining high brightness. Despite intense interest in Si-rhodamines, there has been no exploration of the scope of silicon substitution in these dyes, a potential site of modification that does not exist in conventional rhodamines. Here we report a broad range of silyl modifications that enable brighter dyes, further red-shifting, new ways to modulate fluorescence, and the introduction of handles for dye attachment, including fluorogenic labeling agents for nuclear DNA, SNAP-tag and HaloTag labeling. Modifications to the bridging silicon are therefore of broad utility to improve and expand the applications of all Si-dyes.
Supporting Information: Procedures and Figures
Experimental procedures and supplementary figures
Supporting Information: NMR Spectra
1H and 13C NMR spectra for synthesized compounds