Inorganic Chemistry

X-band Parallel-Mode and Multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of S = 1/2 Bismuth Centers



The recent successes in the isolation and characterization of several bismuth radicals inspire the development of new spectroscopic approaches for the in-depth analysis of their electronic structure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the characterization of main group radicals. However, the large electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions of Bi (209Bi, I = 9/2) have presented difficult challenges to fully interpret the spectral properties for some of these radicals. Parallel-mode EPR (B1 || B0) is almost exclusively employed for the study of S > 1/2 systems but becomes feasible for S = 1/2 systems with large hyperfine couplings, offering a distinct EPR spectroscopic method. Herein, we demonstrate the application of conventional X-band parallel-mode EPR for S = 1/2, I = 9/2 spin systems: Bi doped crystalline silicon (Bi:Si) and the molecular Bi radicals: [L(X)Ga]2Bi• (X = Cl, I) and [L(Cl)GaBi(MecAAC)]• (L = HC[MeCN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)]2). In combination with multifrequency perpendicular-mode EPR (X-, Q-, and W-band frequency), we were able to fully refine both of the anisotropic g- and A-tensors of these molecular radicals. The parallel-mode EPR experiments demonstrated and discussed here have the potential to enable the characterization of other S = 1/2 systems with large hyperfine couplings, which is often challenging by conventional perpendicular-mode EPR techniques. Considerations pertaining to the choice of microwave frequency are discussed for relevant spin-systems.


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Supplementary material

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Supplemental Information
Additional discussion of hydrogen atom EPR theory, Bi:Si EPR intensity, and additional experimental EPR spectra of Bi radicals.