INAQS, a generic interface for non-adiabatic QM/MM dynamics: Design, implementation, and validation for GROMACS/Q-CHEM simulations

02 March 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The accurate description of large molecular systems in complex environments remains an ongoing challenge for the field of computational chemistry. This problem is even more pronounced for photo-induced processes, as multiple excited electronic states and their corresponding non-adiabatic couplings must be taken into account. Multiscale approaches such as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) offer a balanced compromise between accuracy and computational burden. Here, we introduce an open-source software package (INAQS) for non-adiabatic QM/MM simulations that bridges the sampling capabilities of the GROMACS MD package and the excited-state infrastructure of the Q-CHEM electronic structure software. The interface is simple and can be adapted easily to other MD codes. The code supports a variety of different trajectory based molecular dynamics, ranging from Born-Oppenheimer to surface hopping dynamics. To illustrate the power of this combination, we simulate electronic absorption spectra, free energy surfaces along a reaction coordinate, and the excited state dynamics of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution.


Excited-state dynamics
Surface Hopping
Electronic Structure
Molecular Dynamics


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