Densified HKUST-1 Monoliths as a Route to High Volumetric and Gravimetric Hydrogen Storage Capacity

23 February 2022, Version 1


We are currently witnessing the dawn of the hydrogen (H2) economy, where H2 will become a primary fuel for heating, transportation, and long-distance and long-term energy storage. Among the diverse possibilities, H2 can be stored as a pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, or solid fuel via adsorption onto porous materials. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as the adsorbent materials with the theoretical highest H2 storage densities on both a volumetric and gravimetric basis. However, a critical bottleneck for the use of H2 as a transportation fuel has been the lack of densification methods capable of shaping MOFs into practical formulations whilst maintaining their adsorptive performance. Here, we report a high-throughput screening and deep analysis of a database of MOFs to find optimal materials, followed by the synthesis, characterisation, and performance evaluation of an optimal monolithic MOF (monoMOF) for H2 storage. After densification, this monoMOF stores 46 g L-1 H2 at 50 bar, 77 K, and delivers 41 and 42 g L-1 H2 at operating pressures of 25 and 50 bar, respectively, when deployed in a combined temperature–pressure (25-50 bar/77 K → 5 bar/160 K) swing gas delivery system. This performance represents up to an 80% reduction in the operating pressure requirements for delivering H2 gas when compared with benchmark materials, and an 83% reduction compared to compressed H2 gas. Our findings represent a substantial step forward in the application of high-density materials for volumetric H2 storage applications.


Metal-organic frameworks
Advanced characterisation
Materials Chemistry
Monolithic Materials
Hydrogen storage

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information
Supporting Information including full gas adsorption data, X-ray diffraction, computational details etc.


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