Mechanochemical reaction kinetics scales linearly with impact energy



Inelastic collisions of the milling media in ball milling provide energy to the reaction mixture required for a chemical transformations. However, movement of the milling media results also in physical mixing of reactants, which too may enable a chemical reaction. Separating the two contributions is challenging and gaining a direct insight into the purely mechanochemically driven reactivity is accordingly hindered. Here, we have applied in situ reaction monitoring by Raman spectroscopy to a suitable, purely mechanically activated, chemical reaction and combined kinetic analysis with numerical simulations to access experimentally unattainable milling parameters. The breadth of milling conditions allow us to establish a linear relationship between the reaction rate and the energy dose received by the sample. Consequently, different kinetic profiles in time scale to the same profile when plotted against the energy dose, which increases with the ball mass, the average ball velocity and the frequency of impacts, but it decreases with the hardness of the milling media due to more elastic collisions. The fundamental relationship between kinetics and energy input provides the basis for planning and optimisation of mechanochemical reactions and is essential for transferability of mechanochemical reactions across different milling platforms.


Supplementary material

Supporting Info
Experimental details for synthesis, in situ monitoring, reaction profile extraction, kinetic analysis, numerical simulations