Analytic High-Order Energy Derivatives for Metal Nanoparticle-Mediated Infrared and Raman Scattering Spectra within the Framework of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Model with Induced Charges and Dipoles


  • Zheng Pei Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University ,
  • Yuezhi Mao Department of Chemistry, Stanford University ,
  • Yihan Shao Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma ,
  • Wanzhen Liang Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University


This work is devoted to deriving and implementing analytic second- and third-order energy derivatives with respect to the nuclear coordinates and external electric field within the framework of the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method with induced charges and dipoles (QM/DIM). Using these analytic energy derivatives, one can efficiently compute the harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared (IR) and Raman scattering (RS) spectra of the molecule in the proximity of noble metal clusters/nanoparticles. The validity and accuracy of these analytic implementations are demonstrated by the comparison of results obtained by the finite-difference method and the analytic approaches, and by the full QM and QM/DIM calculations. The complexes formed by pyridine and two sizes of gold clusters (Au18 and Au32) at varying intersystem distances of 3, 4, and 5 Å are used as the test systems, and Raman spectra of 4,40-bipyridine in the proximity of Au2057 and Ag2057 metal nanoparticles (MNP) are calculated by QM/DIM method and compared with experimental results as well. We find that the QM/DIM model can well reproduce the IR spectra obtained from full QM calculations for all the configurations, while though it properly enhances some of the vibrational modes, it artificially overestimates RS spectral intensities of several modes for the systems with very short intersystem distance. We show that this could be improved, however, by incorporating the hyperpolarizability of the gold metal cluster in the evaluation of RS intensities. Additionally, we address the potential impact of charge migration between the adsorbate and MNPs.