The development of straightforward and efficient synthetic methods toward ring-fused heteroaromatic polymers with attractive functionalities has great significance in both chemistry and materials science. Herein, we develop a facile cascade C-H-activated polyannulation route that can in situ generate multiple ring-fused aza-heteroaromatic polymers from readily available monomers in an atom-economical manner. A series of complex polybenzimidazole derivatives with high absolute molecular weights of up to 24000 are efficiently produced in high yields within 2 hours. Benefiting from their unique imidazole-containing ring-fused structures with multiple aryl pendants, the obtained polymers show excellent thermal and morphological stability, good solution processability, high refractive index, small chromic dispersion, as well as remarkable acid-base-responsive fluorescence. Taking advantage of the ratiometric fluorescence response of the triphenylamine-substituted heteroaromatic polymer to pH variations, we successfully apply it as a sensitive fluorescence probe for the mapping and quantitative analysis of intracellular pH changes in live cells. Furthermore, through the simple N-methylation reaction of the ring-fused polybenzimidazoles, diverse azonia-containing polyelectrolytes are readily produced, which can efficiently kill cancer cells via the synergistic effects of dark toxicity and photo-toxicity.