PbI2 nanocrystal growth by atomic layer deposition of Pb(tmhd)2 and HI

18 January 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Atomic layer deposition (ALD) allows for a great level of control over the thickness and stoichiometry of materials. ALD provides a suitable route to deposit lead halides, which can further be converted to perovskite for photovoltaics, photoemission, and photodetection, among other applications. Deposition of lead halides by ALD has already begun to be explored; however, the precursors used in published processes are highly hazardous, require expensive fabrication processes, or contain impurities that can jeopardize the optoelectronic properties of metal halide perovskites after conversion. We sought to deposit lead iodide (PbI2) by a facile ALD process involving only two readily accessible, low-cost precursors and without involving any unwanted impurities that could act as recombination centers once the PbI2 is later converted to perovskite. Crystalline PbI2 nanocrystals were grown on soda-lime glass (SLG), silicon dioxide support grids, and silicon wafer substrates and provide the groundwork for further investigation into developing lead halide perovskite processes by ALD. The ALD-grown PbI2 was characterized by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), among other methods. This work presents the first step to synthesize lead halide perovskites with atomic control for applications such as interfacial layers in photovoltaics and for deposition in microcavities for lasing.


lead iodide
halide perovskites
vapor-phase processing


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.