Hydrazide- and Diazole-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks and Their Water Harvesting Properties

04 January 2022, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


We report a retrosynthetic strategy and its implementation to making covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with irreversible hydrazide and diazole (oxadiazole and thiadiozole) linkages. This involved the synthesis of a series of 2D and 3D hydrazine-linked frameworks, followed by their oxidation and dehydrative cyclization. Each linkage synthesis and functional group transformation—hydrazine, hydrazide, oxadiazole, and thiadia-zole—was evidenced by 15N multi-CP-MAS NMR. In addition, the isothermal water uptake profiles of these frameworks were studied, leading to the discovery that one hydrazide-linked COF is suitable for water harvest-ing from air in arid conditions. These COFs displayed characteristic S-shaped water sorption profiles, a steep pore-filling step below 18% relative humidity at 25 °C, and a total uptake capacity of 0.45 g g–1 at P/Psat = 0.95. In addition, a total of ten 2D and 3D structures with various such linkages were studies for their affinity to water. We found that even small changes made on the molecular level can lead to major differences in the water isotherm profiles and therefore pointing to the utility of water sorption analysis as a complementary analytical tool to study linkage transformations.


water harvesting
covalent organic frameworks
postsynthetic modification

Supplementary materials

Supporting information
Synthesis and full characterization of COFs including EA, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectra, PXRD data, computational modeling, gas uptake measurements, TGA, and water iso-therms (PDF); X-ray crystallographic data for COF-670-hydrazine (CIF)


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