Towards a Density-Based Description of Chemical Bonds and Noncovalent Interactions with Pauli Energy



Chemical bonds and noncovalent interactions are extraordinarily important concepts in chemistry and beyond. Using density-based quantities to describe them has a long history in the literature, yet none can satisfactorily describe the entire spectrum of interactions from strong chemical bonds to weak van der Waals forces. In this work, employing Pauli energy as the theoretical foundation, we fill in that knowledge gap. Our results show that the newly established density-based index can describe single and multiple covalent bonds, ionic bonds, metallic bonds, and different kinds of noncovalent interactions, all with unique and readily identifiable signature shapes. Two new descriptors, NBI (nonbonding and bonding identification) index and USI (ultra-strong interaction) index, have been introduced in this work. Together with NCI (noncovalent interaction) and SCI (strong covalent interaction) indexes already available in the literature, a density-based description of both chemical bonds and noncovalent interactions is accomplished.