A Nonaqueous Redox-Matched Flow Battery with Charge Storage in Insoluble Polymer Beads

01 December 2021, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


We describe the nonaqueous redox-matched flow battery (RMFB), where charge is stored on redox-active moieties covalently tethered to non-circulating, insoluble polymer beads and charge is transferred between the electrodes and the beads via soluble mediators with redox potentials matched to the active moieties on the beads. The RMFB reported herein uses ferrocene and viologen derivatives bound to crosslinked polystyrene beads. Charge storage in the beads leads to a high (approximately 1.0-1.7 M) effective concentration of active material in the reservoirs while preventing crossover of that material. The relatively low concentration of soluble mediators (15 mM) eliminates the need for high-solubility molecules to create high energy density batteries. Nernstian redox exchange between the beads and redox-matched mediators was fast relative to the cycle time of the RMFB. This approach is generalizable to many different redox-active moieties via attachment to the versatile Merrifield resin.


redox flow battery
polymer-supported chemistry
energy storage
redox-matched flow battery

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information for "A Nonaqueous Redox-Matched Flow Battery with Charge Storage in Insoluble Polymer Beads"
Synthetic methods and characterization, including NMR, IR, and Raman spectra. Bead swelling images and data, details of electro-chemical methods, image of the flow battery system and a reservoir, data from bead-mediator redox exchange in reservoir, crossover experiments with various membranes, RMFB cycling with a Celgard membrane, and RFB with added xPS-Cl beads.


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