Aqueous organic redox flow batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage. However, the design of stable and inexpensive electrolytes is challenging. Here, we report a highly stable, low redox potential, and potentially inexpensive negolyte species, sodium 3,3',3'',3'''-((9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-diyl)bis(azanetriyl))tetrakis(propane-1-sulfonate) (2,6-N-TSAQ), which is synthesized in a single step from inexpensive precursors. Pairing 2,6-N-TSAQ with potassium ferrocyanide at pH 14 yielded a battery with the highest open-circuit voltage, 1.14 V, of any anthraquinone-based cell with a capacity fade rate <10%/yr. When 2,6-N-TSAQ was cycled at neutral pH, it exhibited two orders of magnitude higher capacity fade rate. The great difference in anthraquinone cycling stability at different pH is interpreted in terms of the thermodynamics of the anthrone formation reaction. This work shows the great potential of organic synthetic chemistry for the development of viable flow battery electrolytes and demonstrates the remarkable performance improvements achievable with an understanding of decomposition mechanisms.
Highly Stable Low Redox Potential Quinone for Aqueous Flow Batteries