Optimization of a Pyrimidinone Series for Selective Inhibition of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclase 1 Activity for the Treatment of Chronic Pain



Adenylyl cyclase type 1 is an emerging target for the treatment of chronic pain that is downstream on the analgesic pathway from the traditional µ-opioid receptor. AC1 is expressed in the central nervous system and critical for signaling in pain sensitization. Behavioral studies have revealed AC1 knockout mice exhibit reduced behavioral pain sensitization responses similar to morphine administration. AC1, and a closely related isoform AC8, are also implicated to have a role in learning and memory signaling processes. However, reports suggest selectively targeting AC1 over AC8 may be a viable strategy to eliminate potential deleterious effects on learning and memory. Our team has carried out cellular screening for inhibitors of AC1 that yielded a pyrazolyl-pyrimidinone scaffold with potency comparable to previously published AC1 inhibitors, selectivity versus AC8, and improved drug-like physicochemical properties. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies produced 36 analogs that balanced improvements in potency with cellular IC50 values as low as 0.25 µM and selectivity versus AC8. Prioritized analogs were selective for AC1 compared to other AC isoforms and other common neurological targets. A representative analog was assessed for efficacy in a mouse model of inflammatory pain and displayed modest anti-allodynic effects. This series of compounds represents the most potent and selective inhibitors of Ca2+/Calmodulin-stimulated AC1 activity to date with reduced off-target liabilities and improved drug-like physicochemical properties making them promising lead compounds for the treatment of inflammatory pain.


Supplementary material

Supporting Information
AC1 IC90s, cell viability, off-target AC isoform inhibition, PDSP data, opioid receptor data, kinase inhibition and hERG data.
Analog Dose-Response Curves
Overlaid dose-response curves for each analog against both AC1 and AC8
Compound Characterization
1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and HPLC for each analog
QikProp Calculations
Cheminformatics calculations of QikProp metrics for each analog
Molecular Formula Strings and Data
Machine readable molecular formula strings and associated data for each analog