Catalysis

Stereoconvergent and -divergent Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Alkenes by Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings

Authors

Abstract

We report the development of a method to diastereoselectively access tetrasubstituted alkenes via nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings of enol tosylates and boronic acid esters. Either diastereomeric product was selectively accessed from a mixture of enol tosylate starting material diastereomers in a convergent reaction by judicious choice of the ligand and reaction conditions. A similar protocol also enabled a divergent synthesis of each product isomer from diastereomerically pure enol tosylates. Notably, high-throughput optimization of the monophosphine ligands was guided by chemical space analysis of the kraken library to ensure a diverse selection of ligands was examined. Stereoelectronic analysis of the results provided insight into the requirements for reactive and selective ligands in this transformation. The synthetic utility of the optimized catalytic system was then probed in the stereoselective synthesis of various tetrasubstituted alkenes, with yields up to 94% and diastereomeric ratios up to 99:1 Z/E and 93:7 E/Z observed. Moreover, a detailed computational analysis and experimental mechanistic studies provided key insights into the nature of the underlying isomerization process impacting selectivity in the cross-coupling.

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Supplementary material

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Supporting Information
Supporting Information for "Stereoconvergent and -divergent Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Alkenes by Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings"