Theoretical and Computational Chemistry

Stochastic Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent Field: Theory and Application


  • Oskar Weser Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research ,
  • Kai Guther Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research & RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science ,
  • Khaldoon Ghanem Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research ,
  • Giovanni Li Manni Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research


An algorithm to perform stochastic generalized active space calculations, Stochastic-GAS, is presented, that uses the Slater determinant based FCIQMC algorithm as configuration interaction eigensolver. Stochastic-GAS allows the construction and stochastic optimization of preselected truncated configuration interaction wave functions, either to reduce the computational costs of large active space wave function optimizations, or to probe the role of specific electron correlation pathways. As for the conventional GAS procedure, the preselection of the truncated wave function is based on the selection of multiple active subspaces while imposing restrictions on the interspace excitations. Both local and cumulative minimum and maximum occupation number constraints are supported by Stochastic-GAS. The occupation number constraints are efficiently encoded in precomputed probability distributions, using the precomputed heat bath algorithm, which removes nearly all runtime overheads of GAS. This strategy effectively allows the FCIQMC dynamics to a priori exclude electronic configurations that are not allowed by GAS restrictions. Stochastic-GAS reduced density matrices are stochastically sampled, allowing orbital relaxations via Stochastic-GASSCF, and direct evaluation of properties that can be extracted from density matrices, such as the spin expectation value. Three test case applications have been chosen to demonstrate the flexibility of Stochastic-GAS: (a) the Stochastic-GASSCF optimization of a stack of five benzene molecules, that shows the applicability of Stochastic-GAS towards fragment-based chemical systems; (b) an uncontracted stochastic MRCISD calculation that correlates 96 electrons and 159 molecular orbitals, and uses a large (32, 34) active space reference wave function for an Fe(II)-porphyrin model system, showing how GAS can be applied to systematically recover dynamic electron correlation, and how in the specific case of the Fe(II)-porphyrin dynamic correlation further differentially stabilizes the triplet over the quintet spin state; (c) the study of an Fe4S4 cluster's spin-ladder energetics via highly truncated stochastic-GAS wave functions, where we show how GAS can be applied to understand the competing spin-exchange and charge-transfer correlating mechanisms in stabilizing different spin-states.


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Supplementary material

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Supporting Information
The Supporting_Information.pdf describes computational details and the other available files that are necessary to reproduce our results. In addition one finds tables of all results and a derivation of the working equation for the evaluation of the $\hat{S}^2$ expectation value.
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Additional files
This tar-archive contains coordinates, inputs, and starting orbitals that are necessary to reproduce our results. They are described in the Supporting Information.