Theoretical and Computational Chemistry

DART: Deep Learning Enabled Topological Interaction Model for Energy Prediction of Metal Clusters and its Application in Identifying Unique Low Energy Isomers



Recently, Machine Learning (ML) has proven to yield fast and accurate predictions of chemical properties to accelerate the discovery of novel molecules and materials. The majority of the work is on organic molecules, and much more work needs to be done for inorganic molecules, especially clusters. In the present work, we introduce a simple Topological Atomic Descriptor called TAD, which encodes chemical environment information of each atom in the cluster. TAD is a simple and interpretable descriptor where each value represents the atom count in three shells. We also introduce the DART, Deep Learning Enabled Topological Interaction model, which uses TAD as a feature vector to predict energies of metal clusters, in our case Gallium clusters with size ranging from 31 to 70 atoms. DART model is designed based on the principle that energy is a function of atomic interactions and allows us to model these complex atomic interactions to predict the energy. We further introduce a new dataset called GNC_31-70, which comprises structures and DFT optimized energies of Gallium clusters with sizes ranging from 31 to 70 atoms. We show how DART can be used to accelerate the identification of ground-state structures without geometry optimization. Albeit using topological descriptor, DART achieves MAE of 3.59 kcal/mol (0.15 eV) on testset. We also show that our model can distinguish core and surface atoms in the Ga-70 cluster, which the model has never encountered earlier. Finally, we demonstrate the transferability of DART model by predicting energies for about 6k unseen configurations picked up from Molecular Dynamics (MD) data for three cluster sizes (46, 57, and 60) within seconds. The DART model was able to reduce the load on DFT optimizations while identifying unique low energy structures from MD data.


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Supplementary material

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