Citizen-Led Sampling to Monitor Phosphate Levels in Freshwater Environments Using a Simple Paper Microfluidic Device

24 May 2021, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


We demonstrate how a combination of paper microfluidic devices and handheld mobile technology can be used by citizen scientists to carry out a sustained water monitoring campaign. We have developed a paper-based analysis device and a 3 minute sampling workflow that requires no more than a container, a test device and a smartphone app. The contaminant measured in these pilots are phosphates, detectable down to 3 mg L-1. Together these allow volunteers to successfully carry out cost-effective, high frequency, phosphate monitoring over an extended geographies and periods.


Water Quality Monitoring
Paper Analytical Devices
citizen science
Mobile application

Supplementary materials

Preprint Riverdip SI

Supplementary weblinks


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