Versatile 3D-Printed Micro-Reference Electrodes for Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Solutions

11 May 2021, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


While numerous reference electrodes suitable for aqueous electrolytes exist, there is no well-defined standard for non-aqueous electrolytes. Furthermore, reference electrodes are often large and do not meet the size requirements for small cells. In this work, we present a simple method for fabricating stable 3D-printed micro-reference electrodes. The prints are made from polyvinylidene fluoride, which is chemically inert in strong acids, bases, and commonly used non-aqueous solvents. We chose six different reference systems based on Ag, Cu, Zn, and Na, including three aqueous and three non-aqueous systems to demonstrate the versatility of the approach. Subsequently, we conducted cyclic voltammetry experiments and measured the potential difference between the aqueous home-made reference electrodes and a commercial Ag/AgCl-electrode. For the non-aqueous reference electrodes, we chose the ferrocene redox couple as an internal standard. From these measurements, we deduced that this new class of micro-reference electrodes is leak-tight and shows a stable electrode potential.


reference electrodes
Ionic liquid
3D printed object


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