A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Different Production Processes for Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersions

25 February 2021, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


This study provides a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of four different polyurethane dispersion production processes from cradle-to-gate. The environmental performances of the NMP process, the acetone process, the melt process, and a conceptualized continuous flow process were evaluated and compared following the CML 2001 methodology. The LCA revealed that the conceptualized flow process exhibits the lowest environmental impact in all investigated impact categories. Depending on the impact category, the melt process or the acetone process rank second. The NMP process was observed to have the highest impact in all categories. Consequently, the flow process has the lowest carbon footprint (1.13 kg CO2-eq), according to the global warming potential (100 years), followed by the melt (1.45 kg CO2-eq), the acetone (1.95 kg CO2-eq) and the NMP process (3.11 kg CO2-eq).


Life cycle assessment
Waterborne polyurethane dispersions
Continuous flow

Supplementary materials

SI PUD LCA final


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.