The Straightforward Route Towards the Theoretical Specific Free Enthalpy of Electrochemical Reactions

20 January 2021, Version 3
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


This paper outlines a simple yet precise method for identifying the theoretical specific free enthalpy of electrochemical reactions on basis of the ideal gas law, equilibrium thermodynamics and Faraday's law, exploiting the normative role of the standard hydrogen electrode in electrochemistry. The result of this approach are discussed in relation to four battery cell reaction examples: LiCoO2/C6, LiFePO4/C6, sodium-sulfur (NAS) and NaCl–Ni (ZEBRA). The agreement between calculated and practical values is near-excellent for even stoichiometries which bespeaks the virtually ideal nature of reversible reactions and the quality of the practical optimization efforts alike. These findings highlight the principal nature of intrinsic thermodynamic limitation to equilibrium mass transfer and its key role towards understanding reversible chemical energy storage in a global sense.


Specific energy barriers
Thermodynamic limits
electrochemical energy storage systems
specific energy
battery cell design
Ideal gas law
ideal gas model
energy storage ability
Electrochemical reactions
Free Enthalpy Differences
Gibbs energy data
Secondary Batteries
Equilibrium thermodynamics
chemical energy storage

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