Effect of Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive on the Initial Formation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Oxygen Functionalized Graphitic Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries

27 October 2020, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at the electrode/electrolyte interface substantially affects the stability and lifetime of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). One of the methods to improve the lifetime of LIBs is by the inclusion of additive molecules to stabilize the SEI. To understand the effect of additive molecules on the initial stage of SEI formation, we compare the decomposition and oligomerization reactions of a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive on a range of oxygen functionalized graphitic anode to those of an ethylene carbonate (EC) organic electrolyte. A series of density functional theory (DFT) calculations augmented by ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations reveal that EC decomposition on an oxygen functionalized graphitic (1120) edge facet through an SN2 mechanism is spontaneous, even in an uncharged cell. Decomposition of EC through an SN2 reaction pathway results in alkoxide species regeneration which is responsible for continual oligomerization along the graphitic surface. In contrast, FEC prefers to decompose through an SN1 pathway, which does not promote alkoxide regeneration. The ability of FEC as an additive to suppress alkoxide regeneration results in a smaller and thinner SEI layer that is more flexible towards lithium intercalation during the charging/discharging process. In addition, the presence of different oxygen functional groups at the surface of graphite dictates the oligomerization products and LiF formation in the SEI.


lithium ion batteries
fluoroethylene carbonate
oxidized graphite anode
density functional theory


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