Hydrazone and oxime peptide ligations are catalyzed by arginine. The catalysis is assisted intramolecularly by the side-chain guanidinium group. Hydrazone ligation in the presence of arginine proceeds efficiently in phosphate buffer at neutral pH but is particularly powerful in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. In addition to acting as a catalyst, arginine prevents the aggregation of proteins during ligation. With its dual properties as nucleophilic catalyst and protein aggregation inhibitor, arginine hydrochloride is a useful addition to the hydrazone/oxime ligation toolbox.
Supplementary Information R1