Titration Simulations for Understanding of the Binding Equilibrium

28 September 2020, Version 2
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The reliability evaluation of the predicted binding constants in numerous models is a challenge for supramolecular host-guest chemistry. Here, I briefly formulate binding isotherm with the derivation of the multivalent equilibrium model for the chemist who wants to determine the binding constants of their compounds. This article gives an in-depth understanding of the stoichiometry of binding equilibrium to take divalent binding equilibria bearing two structurally identical binding sites as an example. The stoichiometry of binding equilibrium is affected by (1) the cooperativity of complex, (2) the concentration of titration media, and (3) the equivalents of guests. The simulations were conducted with simple Python codes.


BInding Isotherm
host guest titration

Supplementary materials

Supplementary Information

Supplementary weblinks


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