Operando Tracing and Quantifying Inactive Li in Lithium Metal Battery


we revive the application of operando NMR technique in the study of LMBs. The combination of AFBs and operando NMR completely avoid the interference of lithium metal anode on the analysis of electrochemistry related Li metal, and thus observe the deposition and dissolution processes of lithium metal during cycling in real-time. Combining with the practical battery configuration and the novel data-processing method, we can operando monitor the evolution of capacity loss caused by the dead Li metal and SEI during the whole cycling process