Tailoring Polymer Dispersity by Controlled Radical Polymerization: A Versatile Approach
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Dispersity (Ɖ) can significantly affect polymer properties and is a key parameter in materials design; however, current methods do not allow for the comprehensive control of dispersity. They are limited in monomer scope, may require the use of flow-based systems and/or additional reagents (e.g. termination agents or co-monomers), and are often accompanied by multimodal molecular weight distributions, low initiator efficiencies or poor end-group fidelity. Herein, we report a straightforward and versatile batch method based on reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization which enables good control over Ɖ of a wide range of monomer classes, including acrylates, acrylamides, methacrylates and styrene. In addition, our methodology is compatible with more challenging monomers such as methacrylic acid, vinyl ketone and vinyl acetate. Control over Ɖ is achieved by mixing two RAFT agents with sufficiently different transfer activities in various ratios, affording polymers with monomodal molecular weight distributions over a broad dispersity range (Ɖ ~ 1.09-2.10). Our findings were further supported by simulations through the use of deterministic kinetic modelling which was fully in line with our experimental data, further confirming the power of our methodology. The robustness of the concept is further demonstrated by the preparation of well-defined block copolymers via chain extension of all polymers regardless of the initial Ɖ.