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preprint ZDDP AS.pdf (3.38 MB)
Structure and Formation of Soot Particles from Tribofilm Decomposition Under Real Engine Conditions
Preprints are manuscripts made publicly available before they have been submitted for formal peer review and publication. They might contain new research findings or data. Preprints can be a draft or final version of an author's research but must not have been accepted for publication at the time of submission.
submitted on 08.09.2020 and posted on 09.09.2020by Thomas Thersleff, Istvan Zoltan Jenei, Serhiy Budnyk, Nicole Dörr, Adam Slabon
Lubrication of an internal combustion engine is critical for unwanted energy and material losses. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is a commonly used anti-wear additive that forms by in situ decomposition a protecting interface between sliding surfaces. The interface consists of the tribofilm on both surfaces and oil in the contact. Soot particles from a petrol engine and gas engine were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques: electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). These techniques revealed that the end-products in soot contain 3-5 nm ZnO-based particles with additions of phosphorus and sulfur, originating from the ZDDP anti-wear additive. Our results unravel the tribofilm decomposition under real field conditions and hint toward potentially unidentified hazards with respect to ZDDP-containing lubricants.