These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
je_fumarate_v3.pdf (999.14 kB)

Real Time Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Detection of Fumarase Activity using Parahydrogen-Hyperpolarized [1-13C]fumarate

submitted on 13.09.2019, 18:29 and posted on 17.09.2019, 12:03 by James Eills, Eleonora Cavallari, Carla Carrera, Dmitry Budker, Silvio Aime, Francesca Reineri
Hyperpolarized fumarate can be used as a probe of real-time metabolism in vivo, using carbon-13 magnetic resonance imaging. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is commonly used to produce hyperpolarized fumarate, but a cheaper and faster alternative is to produce hyperpolarized fumarate via PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization). In this work we trans-hydrogenate [1-13C]acetylene dicarboxylate with para-enriched hydrogen using a commercially available Ru catalyst in water to produce hyperpolarized [1-13C]fumarate. We show that fumarate is produced in 89% yield, with succinate as a side product in 11% yield. The proton polarization is converted into 13C magnetization using a constant adiabaticity field cycle, and a polarization level of 25% is achieved using 86% para-enriched hydrogen gas. We inject the hyperpolarized [1-13C]fumarate into cell suspensions and track the metabolism. This work opens the path to greatly accelerated preclinical studies using fumarate as a biomarker.


Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 766402

Compagnia di San Paolo (Athenaeum Research 2016, n. CSTO164550)


Email Address of Submitting Author


Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz



ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.