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Re-Programming Hydrogel Properties using a Fuel-driven Reaction Cycle

revised on 21.12.2019, 15:10 and posted on 23.12.2019, 22:26 by Nishant Singh, Bruno Lainer, Georges Formon, Serena De Piccoli, Thomas Hermans
Nature uses catalysis as an indispensable tool to control assembly and reaction cycles in vital non-equilibrium supramolecular processes. For instance, enzymatic methionine oxidation regulates actin (dis)assembly, and catalytic guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis is found in tubulin (dis)assembly. Here we present a completely artificial reaction cycle which is driven by a chemical fuel that is catalytically obtained from a ‘pre-fuel’. The reaction cycle controls the disassembly and re-assembly of a hydrogel, where the rate of pre-fuel turnover dictates the morphology as well as the mechanical properties. By adding additional fresh aliquots of fuel and removing waste, the hydrogels can be re-programmed time after time. Overall, we show how catalysis can control fuel generation to control reaction / assembly kinetics and materials properties in life-like non-equilibrium systems.


Email Address of Submitting Author


Université de Strasbourg



ORCID For Submitting Author


Declaration of Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest

Version Notes

v2: Fig. 1d and S3 have updated data after the reviewer comments, Fig. 3 now includes cycle number 12. The supporting information now included the full MATLAB code used to perform fitting.