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submitted on 02.09.2020 and posted on 03.09.2020by Stephan Knecht, John W. Blanchard, Danila Barskiy, Eleonora Cavallari, Laurynas Dagys, Erik van Dyke, Maksim Tsukanov, Bea Bliemel, Kerstin Münnemann, Silvio Aime, Francesca Reineri, Malcolm H. Levitt, Gerd Buntkowsky, Alexander Pines, Peter Blümler, Dmitry Budker, James Eills
Hyperpolarized fumarate is a promising agent for carbon-13 magnetic
resonance metabolic imaging of cellular necrosis. Molecular imaging
applications require nuclear hyperpolarization to attain sufficient signal
strength. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is the current state-of-the-art
methodology for hyperpolarizing fumarate, but this is expensive and relatively
slow. Alternatively, this important biomolecule can be hyperpolarized in a cheap and
convenient manner using parahydrogen-induced polarization. However, this process
requires a chemical reaction, and the resulting hyperpolarized fumarate
solutions are contaminated with the catalyst, unreacted reagents, and reaction
side product molecules, and are hence unsuitable for use in vivo. In
this work we show that the hyperpolarized fumarate can be purified from these
contaminants by acid precipitation as a pure solid, and later redissolved at a
chosen concentration in a clean aqueous solvent. Significant advances in the
reaction conditions and reactor equipment allow us to form hyperpolarized
fumarate at a concentration of several hundred millimolar, at 13C polarization levels of 30-45%.